Gregory Vogel

Curriculum Vitae

May 2016

                                                                                                              

RR1 Box 128

Eldred, Illinois, 62027

                                                                                                                 

Email: ggvogel@gmail.com                          Site: ggvogel.com

 

Professional Interests

Archaeology, geoarchaeology, prehistoric and historic human/environment interactions; geoarchaeology, GIS, geophysical remote sensing; cultural landscapes and monumental architecture; historic cemeteries.

 

Education

2005. Ph.D. in Environmental Dynamics (a joint interdisciplinary program combining anthropology and the geosciences) University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Dissertation: Civic Ceremonial Centers and Landscape Relationships in the Northern Caddo Area. Dr. Marvin Kay, Committee Chair.

 

2000. M.A. in Anthropology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Thesis: A Geoarchaeological Study in the Dissected Uplands of Mark Twain National Forest, Ava District. Dr. Marvin Kay, Committee Chair.

 

1995. B.A. in Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Dr. Mary Whelan, Major Advisor.

 

 

Teaching Experience

Fall 2009 to spring 2015: Introduction to Anthropology, Human Ancestry and Adaptations, Human Culture and Communication, World Prehistory, North American Prehistory, Illinois Prehistory, Archaeology Field School, Geoarchaeology, GIS Applications in Archaeology, Living Ecologically, Cultural Ecology, Anthropology through Film and Fiction, Senior Assignment. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

 

Summers 2006-2009. GIS and Geophysical Remote Sensing in Archaeology. Six-week field school at the Center for American Archeology with course credit through Arizona State University.

 

2006-2010. Geoarchaeology workshops/short courses, Center for American Archeology.

 

2007-2008. Cemetery Recording Workshop, Lewis and Clark Community College (Godfrey, Illinois).

 

2006-2008, 2010-2011 (summers). Mentor for National Great Rivers Research and Education Center Internship Program. Interns conduct an eight-week research project concerning some aspect of the environment, ecology, and/or archaeology within the three-rivers confluence area.

 

Fall 2007. Introduction to Anthropology. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

 

Fall 2004 and Spring 2005. Introduction to Archaeology. Northwest Arkansas Community College, Bentonville.

 

Fall 2001 to Fall 2003. Approaches to Archaeology Lecture, all sections. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Received Baum Award for Excellence in Teaching for this class in 2002 and 2003.

 

Fall 1999 to Spring 2000. Approaches to Archaeology Laboratory, all sections. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.

 

Summer 2000. Archaeological Methods. Upward Bound Program at Crowder College, Neosho Missouri. Upward Bound is a federally funded college preparation program for at-risk high school students.

 

 

Professional and Field Experience
Geoarc Research, Inc.  Summer 2015 to present. Geoarchaeologist. Primarily field-based work on pipelines and other projects throughout the Midwest.

 

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. Fall 2009 to Spring 2015. Assistant professor of anthropology.

 

Center for American Archeology (Kampsville, Illinois). Spring 2006 to Fall 2009. Director of Research. Hired in this position through a post-doctoral fellowship from Arizona State University's School of Human Evolution and Social Changes. Responsible for overseeing CAA research program and heritage studies initiatives, grant writing, aiding CAA education and outreach programs, teaching for CAA/ASU college field schools, and other duties as needed.

 

SPEARS, Inc. (West Fork, Arkansas), Fall 2005 to Summer 2006. Research Archaeologist. Responsible for spatial analysis, soil chemistry and geoarchaeological research, and aiding in overall site interpretation for a large prehistoric site mitigation project in Northeast Arkansas.

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Martin University, Indianapolis. Summer 2005. Principal Investigator, Next Step Education through Archaeology Program (NSEAP). NSEAP is a grant-supported field school in historic and prehistoric archaeology for underserved high school students in the Indianapolis area. Students are involved in multiple levels of investigation of archaeological sites at Indiana's Fort Harrison State Park, including field investigations, laboratory processing, archival research, and report writing.

 

University of Arkansas. 2001 to 2003. Director, Evergreen Cemetery Recording Project. This project involved students from the University of Arkansas Approaches to Archaeology class and over 50 local volunteers to record, in detail, Fayetteville's historic Evergreen Cemetery.

 

University of Arkansas. Summer 2003. Field Director, Pea Ridge National Military Park Archaeological Survey Project. Commissioned by the National Park Service, this landscape-scale survey recorded the prehistoric and historic archaeological resources at Pea Ridge and Wilson's Creek Civil War battlefield parks. Dr. Marvin Kay, Principal Investigator.

 

University of Arkansas. Spring 1999 to Spring 2001. Graduate assistant for Dr. Marvin Kay. Various field and laboratory duties, primarily involving archaeological investigations at Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri, and Norman Mound site, Oklahoma. This included field work, laboratory work, and GIS modeling.

 

University of Arkansas. Spring 1999 to Fall 2000. Research assistant for Dr. Margaret Guccione. Various field and laboratory duties, primarily involving geomorphology and paleoseismicity investigations in the New Madrid seismic area.

 

Alaska Fish and Wildlife Service. Summer 2001. Archaeological and geoarchaeological field work and laboratory work in Kanatak and Lake Becharof, Alaska, for the Central Alaska Peninsula Archaeological Survey Project, prehistoric and historic sites. Dr. Allen McCartney, Principal Investigator.

 

Center for American Archeology (Kampsville, Illinois). Spring 1996 to Spring 1998. Geomorphology Assistant, primarily working on several phase III projects in western Illinois, prehistoric sites. Dr. Jodi O’Gorman and David Nolan, Principal investigators; Dr. Julieann Van Nest, Geomorphologist.

 

Center for American Archeology (Kampsville, Illinois). Spring 1995 to Spring 1996. Field Assistant and Laboratory Assistant, primarily working on several phase II and III projects in western Illinois, prehistoric and historic sites. Dan Goatley, Karen Atwell, David Nolan, Principal Investigators.

 

Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist. Spring and Summer 1998. Crew Chief on several phase II sites in northeast Missouri, Avenue of the Saints corridor, prehistoric and historic sites. Susan Snow, Principal Investigator.

 

Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist. Fall 1993 to Spring 1995. Crew Chief on several phase I and II projects throughout Iowa, prehistoric and historic. Joe Artz, Susan Snow, Cindy Peterson, Jim Collins, Mike Perry, John Hedden, Principal Investigators.

 

Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. (Lexington, Kentucky). Spring and Summer 1992. Field Technician on a Phase III prehistoric site in southeastern Kentucky. Chuck Niquette, Principal Investigator.

 

Great Lakes Research (Williamston, Michigan). Summer and Fall 1991. Field Technician on two Phase III prehistoric sites in eastern Michigan, Field Technician on several phase I and II prehistoric and historic sites in eastern Michigan. Mark Branstner and Mike Hambacher, Principal Investigators.

 

Commonwealth Cultural Resources Group (Jackson, Michigan). Summer 1991. Field Technician on a Phase III prehistoric site in central Iowa. Dr. Donna Roper, Principal Investigator.

 

University of Iowa Field School (Iowa City). Summer 1991. Fieldwork on two phase III prehistoric sites in eastern Iowa. Dr. Mary Whelan, Principal Investigator.

 

 

  

Publications (* indicates a student as primary author or co-author)

 

(Submitted) Brugam, Richard, Kala Little*, Luci Kohn, Paul Brunkow, Gregory Vogel, Terrance Martin. Tracking Change in the Illinois River Using Stable Isotopes in Modern and Ancient Fishes. River Research and Applications.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2014.  The Page Site and Mound Preservation in the Northern Caddo Area: Multiple Approaches to Understanding and Preserving the Prehistoric Past. Polymath: An Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences Journal 4(3) pp. 1-20.

 

Vogel, Gregory, Anna Marie Wright*, Don Crumley*, and Melody Chester*. 2013. SIUE 2011 and 2012 Archaeological Field School Investigations at the Gehring Site (11MS99) – Interim Report. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2012  Viewshed Characteristics of Caddo Mounds in the Arkansas Basin.  In New Advances in Caddo Archaeology, edited by Timothy K. Perttula and Chester P. Walker.  University of Nebraska Press.  pp. 139-176.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2012.  Biomantle Formation and Site Preservation on Terraces of Low Order Streams in the Ozark Uplands.  Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 37:73-98.

 

Vogel, Gregory, and Bryan Clemons*, with contributions by Johanna Guthrie* and Shannon Murphy*.  2011.  SIUE 2010 Archaeological Field School Investigations at the Gehring Site (11MS99) – Interim Report. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2009.  Brief Report of Investigations at the Ben Klunk Mound Group Near Kampsville, Illinois, in Relation to Construction of a North Calhoun Fire Protection District Radio Tower.  Report Submitted to the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency.  Center for American Archeology, Kampsville, Illinois.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2006. Historical Metrology and a Reconsideration of the Toltec Module. Southeastern Archaeology 25:6-19.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2006. Soils and Site Formation Processes. In Continued Phase II Investigations of Site 12MA649, Fort Harrison State Park, Marion County, Indiana. Jeremy B. Freeman, editor, pp. 17-27. Report prepared for Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indianapolis.

 

Berg-Vogel, Michelle, Carol S. Spears, and Gregory Vogel, Editors, 2006. Transitional Late Woodland/Emergent Mississippian Occupations at Gilmore South (3CT340) and Gilmore North (3CT341) Sites, Crittenden County, Arkansas. SPEARS Project Report 159, submitted to Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock, Arkansas.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2005. Cavanaugh: A Late Prehistoric Platform Mound in Western Arkansas. Caddoan Archaeology Journal 14:35-63.

 

Vogel, Gregory, Marvin Kay and Louis Vogele, Jr., 2005. A Mississippian Platform Mound at the Norman Site (34WG2), Eastern Oklahoma. Southeastern Archaeology 24:28-45.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2004. A Spatial Analysis Approach to Understanding Caddoan Mounds in the Arkansas River Drainage. Caddoan Archaeology Journal 13(3&4):5-18.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2004. Earthworms and Archaeology. Worm Digest issue 35:8-11.

 

Vogel, Gregory, Jared S. Pebworth and Maria Tavaszi, 2003. Management Summary for Pre-Burn Cultural Resources Survey of the Arnold Bend Prescribed Burn Unit, Buffalo National River, Searcy County, Arkansas. Arkansas Archeological Survey Project 03-09 Management Summary, Fayetteville.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2002. A Handbook of Soil Description for Archeologists. Arkansas Archeological Survey Technical Paper 11, Fayetteville.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2002. Recording Historic Evergreen Cemetery. Cornerstone: Newsletter for the Washington County Historic Preservation Association. v2, no.1.

 

Van Nest, Julieann and Gregory Vogel, 1999. Geoarchaeological Record of Holocene Mississippi River Floods in the Sny Bottom of Western Illinois. Center for American Archeology Geology Lab Report 99-1, Kampsville, Illinois.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 1998. A Report on the Geomorphology of McCully Heritage Project Proposed Wetland Enhancement. Center for American Archeology, Geology Lab Report, Kampsville, Illinois.

 

Van Nest, Julieann and Gregory Vogel, 1998. Eagle Slough Site Geomorphology. Center for American Archeology, Geology Lab Report, Kampsville, Illinois.

 

Artz, Joe (Gregory Vogel, contributing author), 1995. Phase II Archaeological Test Excavations at 11 Archaeological Sites in the Montrose Bottom, Primary Roads Project f-61-1(55)—20-56 a.k.a. PIN 79-56040-1 Lee County, Iowa. by Joe Alan Artz. Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist, Project Completion Report, Iowa City.

 

 

 

Presentations at Professional Meetings (* indicates a student as primary author or co-author)

 

Vogel, Gregory. 2013. Koster for the 21st Century: Three-Dimensional Point Cloud Reconstructions of Artifact Concentrations at Koster Horizon 11. Paper presented at the National Park Service 2013 conference: Current Archaeological Prospection Advances for Non-Destructive Investigations in the 21st Century. Ogallala, Nebraska.

 

Vogel, Gregory and Luke Leady*.  2012.  Point Clouds and Spatial Analysis of Artifact Locations From Koster Horizon 11.  Society for American Archaeology Annual Meetings, Memphis. 

 

Vogel, Gregory.  2012.  Spatial Aspects of Hopewell Mounds in the Illinois Valley.  Paper presented at the Illinois Association for the Advancement of Archaeology annual meetings, Collinsville, Illinois.

 

Vogel, Gregory. 2012. Cosmology, Worldview, and the Transformed Landscape of Confluence Region 2,000 years ago.  Paper presented at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville College of Arts and Sciences Colloquium: Thinking About Space.

 

Little, Kayla*, Richard B. Brugam, Luci A. Kohn, and Gregory Vogel, 2012.  Tracing Long-Term Environmental Change in the Illinois River Using Fish Collagen  Paper presented at the Illinois State Academy of Sciences, Galesburg. 

 

Vogel, Gregory.  2011.  Infested with Wild Beasts: 12,000 years of Environmental Change in Illinois.  Invited seminar presented at the University of Illinois Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences Seminar Series.

 

Vogel, Gregory.  2011.  Caddo Past and Caddo Present: the Archaeology and Identity of the Caddo Nation.  Paper presented at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville College of Arts and Sciences Colloquium: Thinking About America.

 

Berg Vogel, Michelle, James Powers* and Gregory Vogel.  2010.  Picturing Change: Documenting Environments and Cultures of the Lower Illinois River Valley Through Historic Images.  Paper presented at the 75th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archeology, St. Louis, Missouri.

 

Brugam R.B. , G. G. Vogel, J.Z.  Holt, L. Kohn,  P. Williams, and M. Wilson* 2010. Paleolimnology at the Mound House and Koster Sites. Presented at the 75th Society for American Archeology Meeting, S. Louis, MO.

 

Little, K*. R. B. Brugam, J.Z. Holt, L. Kohn and G. Vogel. 2010. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in collagen from modern and archeological animal bone from the Illinois river Valley.  102nd Meeting of the Illinois State Academy of Science. Millikin University, Decatur, IL. 

 

Lorenzini, Michele, Julie Holt and Gregory Vogel.  2010.  Engaging Undergraduates in Archaeology: Curriculum and Beyond at SIUE.  Poster presented at the 75th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archeology, St. Louis, Missouri.

 

Vogel, Gregory.  2010.  The Utility of Historical Sources in Reconstructing Prehistoric Environments and Site Use.  Paper presented at the 75th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archeology, St. Louis, Missouri.

 

Vogel, Gregory, James Powers* and Michelle Berg Vogel, 2009.  Picturing Change: Documenting Environments and Material Culture of the Lower Illinois Valley Through Historic Images.  Paper presented at the 53rd annual meetings of the Illinois Archaeological Survey, Springfield, Illinois.

 

 

Wilson, M.J*., R. Brugam, P. Williams, L. Kohn and G. Vogel, 2009.  A Paleolimnological Study of a Lake Adjacent to the Koster Site along the Illinois River.  Poster presented at the Illinois State Academy of Sciences 101st Annual Meetings, Edwardsville Illinois.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2008. Gone but not Forgotten: The Research Potential of Mounds in the Arkansas Basin. Paper presented at the 65th annual Southeastern Archaeology Conference, Charlotte, North Carolina.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2008. Results of the Center for American Archeology/Arizona State University 2008 Field School in GIS and Geophysical Remote Sensing at the Middle Woodland Period Mound House Site, Western Illinois. Paper presented at the 54th Annual Midwest Archaeological Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2008. Participant: Early Woodland Material Culture Hands-on Workshop, organized by Stephen Wagner. 54th Annual Midwest Archaeological Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2008. Geophysical Remote Sensing and GIS at the Mound House Site. Paper presented at the 52nd annual meetings of the Illinois Archaeological Survey, Collinsville/Edwardsville Illinois.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2007. The Page Site and Mound Preservation in the Arkansas Basin. Paper presented at the Caddo Conference, Magnolia, Arkansas.

 

Berg Vogel, Michelle, Carol S. Spears and Gregory Vogel, 2006. Late Woodland/Emergent Mississippian Continuity at the Gilmore Sites in NE Arkansas. Paper presented at the 63rd annual Southeastern Archaeology Conference, Little Rock, Arkansas.

 

Vogel, Gregory and Leslie Walker, 2006. The Prominence of Point Remove: A Civic Ceremonial Complex in the Central Arkansas River Valley. Paper presented at the 63rd annual Southeastern Archaeology Conference, Little Rock, Arkansas.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2005. Measure for Measure: A GIS Approach to Historical Metrology. Talk given for joint University of Birmingham/University of Arkansas Access Grid Project: Postgraduate Landscape Seminars, Fayetteville and Birmingham.

 

Berg Vogel, Michelle and Gregory Vogel, 2005. Recording Techniques and GIS Analysis of Rock Art Elements at Arkansas' Rockhouse Cave. Paper presented at the Eastern States Rock Art Research Association biennial meetings, Ripon, Wisconsin.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2004. A Landscape Scale Study of Mounds in the Spiro Area. Paper presented at the joint Midwest Archaeological Conference / Southeastern Archaeological Conference, St. Louis.

 

Berg Vogel, Michelle and Gregory Vogel, 2004. A GIS Analysis of Rock Art Elements at Arkansas' Rockhouse Cave. Paper presented at the joint Midwest Archaeological Conference / Southeastern Archaeological Conference, St. Louis.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2004. Soils for Archeologists. Short course at Arkansas Archeological Society Annual Meetings, Paragould Arkansas.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2004. Aerial Photography and GIS Models of the Pre-reservoir Spiroan Area Environments. Paper presented at the National Park Service Workshop: Current Archeological Prospection Advances for Non-Destructive Investigations in the 21st Century. Spiro, Oklahoma.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2004. A New Look at Cavanaugh, a Platform Mound in Western Arkansas. Paper presented at the Caddo Conference in Natchitoches, Louisiana.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2003. Biomantle Formation and the Movement of Artifacts in the Soil in the Ozark Uplands. Paper presented at the Plains Anthropological Conference in Fayetteville, Arkansas.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2003. Rates of Biomantle Formation and Artifact Depth Distributions in the Ozark Uplands. Paper presented at Arkansas Academy of Sciences Meeting, Fayetteville.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2002. A GIS Analysis of Mound Spacing at the Toltec Mounds Site, Central Arkansas. Paper presented at the Geological Society of America Annual Meetings, Denver, and at the Southeast Archaeological Conference Annual Meetings, Biloxi.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2001. Stratigraphy of a Caddoan Platform Mound. Paper presented at the Southeastern Archaeological Conference Annual Meetings, Chattanooga.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2001. Sediments and Site Formation Processes in the Ozark Uplands. Poster presented at the Society for American Archaeology Annual Meetings, New Orleans.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2001. Mound I-1 Profiles at the Norman Site (34WG2). Paper presented at the combined 43rd Caddo Conference and 23rd Flint Hills Conference, Norman Oklahoma.

 

Vogel, Gregory, 2000. A Geoarchaeological Study in the Dissected Uplands of Mark Twain National Forest, Ava District, Missouri. Poster presented at the American Quaternary Association meetings, Fayetteville.

 

Van Nest, Julieann and Gregory Vogel, 1999. Geoarchaeological Record of Holocene Mississippi River Floods in the Sny Bottom of Western Illinois. Paper presented at the Society for American Archaeology meetings, Chicago.

 

 

 

Grants and Awards

 

2012  Principal Investigator: SIUE Research Equipment and Tools Program to purchase a resistivity meter.  ($34,459)

 

2011.  Co-PI (along with Christopher B. Gordon, PI, and Co-PIs Jie Gong, Gary Mayer, and Kurt Schultz) on National Science Foundation Major Research Instrumentation grant: "MRI: Acquisition of a 3D Laser Scanner to Support Multi-Disciplinary Research in Data-Driven Management of Cultural, Physical, and Biological Resources" ($100,000)

 

2011.  Principal Investigator: SIUE internal grant New Directions to purchase a magnetic gradiometer (in conjunction with funds from an internal SIUE internal Excellence in Undergraduate Education grant). ($8,515)

 

2010.  Principal Investigator: SIUE internal grant Excellence in Undergraduate Education to purchase a magnetic gradiometer (in conjunction with funds from an SIUE internal New Directions grant). ($14,150)

 

2008-2009. Collaborator on Environmental Impacts of Native Americans and Early American Settlers in the Lower Illinois River Valley,  Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Graduate School Multidisciplinary Research Teams Grant. Dick
Brugam, Team Leader, Julie Holt and Luci Kohn, Co-Collaborators.

 

2007-2009. Senior Researcher, Prelude to Plant Domestication in Eastern North America, National Science Foundation Archaeology and Archaeometry. Jane Buikstra and Tim Messner, Principal Investigators.

 

2008. Principal Investigator: Agents of Change: An ASU Educational Initiative in the Lower Illinois River Valley, U.S. Steel Foundation.

 

2006. Principal Investigator: Save Our History: Schumann Cemetery Recording Project, The History Channel.

 

2005. Principal Investigator: Evergreen Cemetery On-Line Recording Project, Arkansas Humanities Council.

 

2003. National Science Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grant: Location and Patterning of Mississippian Mounds in the Central Arkansas River Valley.

 

2003 and 2002. Awarded University of Arkansas Baum Award for Excellence in Teaching for ANTH 3023: Approaches to Archaeology.

 

2002. University of Arkansas Fulbright College Dissertation Research Travel Award.

 

2000 – 2003. Environmental Dynamics Program Summer Research Grants.

 

1986. Laurence Fairall Scholarship for Writing, University of Iowa Writer's Workshop.

 

 

Master’s Theses and PhD Dissertation Committees

 

Little, Kayla. 2013. Using Ancient and Modern Fish to Track Environmental Changes in the Illinois River. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

 

Schilling, Timothy. 2010.  An archaeological model of the construction of Monks Mound and implications for the development of the Cahokian society (800 - 1400 A.D.). PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis.

 

Siebert-Johnston, Rebecca. 2014. History in Your Hand: A Case Study of Digital History and Augmented Reality Using Mound 72. M.A. Thesis, Department of Historical Studies, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

 

 

Other Outreach, Public and Professional Service

2009 – 2012, 2015.  Speaker for Illinois Humanities Council Road Scholars Speakers Program. Give talks to local libraries, museums, and community groups on various aspects of Illinois archaeology, prehistory, and history.

 

2008-2012. Conducted a monthly radio interview concerning local archaeology on WJBM Radio (1480 AM, Jerseyville, Illinois).

 

2005-2008. Co-Editor, Caddo Archaeology Journal.

 

Spring 2003 to Fall 2003. University of Arkansas, student representative and voting member of University of Arkansas Environmental Dynamics Program Steering Committee.

 

1999 to Present. Numerous presentations and short courses on various aspects of archaeology, geoarchaeology, GIS, and historic cemetery recording to archaeological field schools, archaeological and historical societies, local elementary and middle schools, historic preservation groups, and related groups/societies.